by Steve Brannan, Ed.D. and Ann Fullerton, Ph.D.
Every year camp directors receive letters from campers
parents describing growth experiences that began at camp and have continued
to impact their sons or daughters life in the home and community. Counselors
often note similar descriptions of growth in the same campers during program
sessions. Most likely, though, camp administrators do not include these
testimonials and descriptions of change in evaluations of their camp program.
In other words, the data are available, are recognized as important, but
probably arent being effectively utilized.
In these times of increasing pressure to engage in program
evaluation and demonstrate the benefits of camp programs, camp directors
may well ask themselves: "How do I use these rich, personal experiences
of growth as data that will help confirm (or substantiate) the impact
of our program?" "Arent these data valuable?" "Cant
Take a closer look at the importance of such rich
information in your evaluation efforts, and look specifically at the potential
use of case studies in providing qualitative data for evaluation efforts.
Case studies of youth in two nationwide projects, the National Camp Evaluation
Project (NCEP): 1993-96 and the National Inclusive Camp Practices (NICP):
1997-2000, have yielded positive results. These studies have incorporated
qualitative data and comparative case analysis to explore the impact of
camp programs on individuals with and without disabilities. This method
can potentially be used as a component of overall program evaluation.
Importance of Case Study Research and
Case studies are often used to describe the real-life
context in which programs impact participants and to explore various effects
in situations where there may be no clear, single set of outcomes for
all participants. Data about the case are collected using multiple methods
and multiple sources. When a number of cases are collected, then comparative
case analysis can be used to summarize and analyze common and unique experiences
and outcomes across individuals. Single and multi-case studies of this
kind have been long-used by qualitative researchers.
Case studies provide the big picture
Qualitative data can be used to complement the quantitative data obtained
from forced-choice surveys or rating scales that camps often use to evaluate
their programs. Collecting qualitative data is time-consuming, and for
most camp programs, it is rarely feasible to engage in individual case
studies. However, when used as a complement to quantitative methods, collecting
a small number of case studies can provide a context-rich, in-depth picture
of how program experiences might be related to camper outcomes.
Case studies can help a camp program explore what underlies
the quantitative data in terms of the individuals unique experiences
that are recorded during or following a camp program. Case studies are
also useful for discovering the specific ways a camp experience unfolded
for a particular child and how that experience relates to the outcomes,
both positive and negative, for the individual. Case studies can help
camp program staff understand why a participant had particular outcomes
in the context of the overall camp experience.
NCEP and NICP Dynamics
The NCEP was a three-year research project across fourteen
states that focused on determining the personal/social and recreation
skill dimensions of camper performance through use of both quantitative
and qualitative measures. In addition to the objective testing, seventy-three
case studies of campers were conducted in residential camp programs specializing
in serving campers with disabilities. The NICP study, currently in progress,
is being conducted within approximately sixteen states and is focusing
on residential camp and outdoor school programs. Its primary focus is
on inclusive or mainstream programs serving youth with and without disabilities,
and similar to the NCEP, case studies are being used to determine camper/student
growth in addition to the objective measures. In both studies, researchers
have incorporated case studies to achieve a more comprehensive approach
to measure growth and to validate the quantitative data regarding camper/student
Methods Used in the Case Studies
Although the case-study procedures differed somewhat
between the NCEP and NICP research, both studies have used identical interviews
of key respondents as a major case study procedure. In each case study,
the subjects camp counselor was interviewed on the last day of the camp
session, and the campers parents were interviewed either in person or
by phone generally one to three weeks after their child returned home
Using questionnaires with identical content, trained
research assistants interviewed counselors and parents on the growth,
if any, the camper or child made in eight developmental areas:
- social interactions
- communication with others
- participation in recreation
- skill achievement
Examples of positive changes for each of the eight developmental
areas were provided to the informants (counselors and parents) during
the interview. For a question on self-reliance, positive changes included:
- enjoys self during free time
- attempts tasks on own versus requesting counselors help
- makes own choices for various activities
- is independent
- is resourceful
In each developmental area, the counselor or parent was
then asked if the participants behavior had decreased, stayed the same,
or improved. Counselors were asked to compare their campers behavior
since the first day of camp to the end of the camp session. Parents were
asked to compare their childs behavior before and after the camp session.
Whenever a counselor or parent said the participants behavior had changed
(either decreased or increased/improved), they were asked to provide a
specific example of the change which was then recorded.
Case study analysis
After the case studies had been collected, respondents judgements about
change in the campers were analyzed, and the descriptions, or examples,
of a change in behavior for these subjects were then grouped into categories
or types of descriptions. Using procedures recommended by Mayhut and Morhouse
(1994), two reviewers, working independently, read the descriptions and
categorized them. Then the reviewers compared the categories they had
found and, where there was disagreement, they discussed the descriptions
meaning and decided together which category was the best fit for the description.
Final Results from NCEP Case Studies
An analysis of the counselors and parents judgements
regarding camper growth (i.e., decreased, stayed the same, improved) indicated
that the overwhelming majority of these campers improved or stayed the
same in all eight areas of personal development. An analysis of all examples
received from counselors and parents across the same areas revealed similar
results. Overall, the vast majority of examples (97 percent of the descriptions
recorded from counselors and 96 percent of the descriptions recorded from
parents) described an improvement in camper performance associated with
the camp experience. A summative analysis of all interview comments received
from counselors and parents revealed that increased independence (self-reliance)
was the predominant growth outcome for the case-study campers (see page
Emerging Results from NICP Case Studies
Case-study interviews from the NICP are being based on
NCEP case-study findings. In the NCEP research, counselors and parents
judgements about change in their camper or child were also quantified
so that a comparison could be made between the two groups of respondents.
It was determined that counselors judged their campers to make the greatest
growth in the areas of social interactions (69 percent) and communication
(69 percent), while parents judged their children to make the greatest
improvement in self-reliance (59 percent) and self-
esteem (57 percent).
Based on these findings, the researchers selected the
same four areas of development to highlight recent case-study findings
from the NICP study. Representative case-study interviews that illustrate
changes in camper growth as judged by each campers counselor and parent
are listed in the sidebar "Examples of Perceived Growth for Youth
in Camp and Home Environments" on page 25.
the NICP research includes both quantitative and qualitative data to achieve
a more comprehensive evaluation of camper growth. As we enter the second
year of the NICP study, counselor and parent perceptions from the emerging
case-study data are exciting. Although preliminary, this qualitative data
indicate positive benefits for youth with and without disabilities who
participate together in inclusive camp or outdoor/environmental
education programs. The following recent case-study data, provided by
a parent of a child without a disability and parent whose child is disabled,
indicate the significance of this approach and the impact these inclusionary
camp programs are having on youth:
- "He talked about having a handicapped
fellow (Moms own wording) in his cabin group. He is willing to talk
to us now about how he is able to see that everyone has needs, disabilities
(so to speak), and abilities."
- "There is no place she can be a typical
child, except at this camp. It is always hard for her to relate to
anything in her environment. Yet at camp, she is in an environment
where she is a regular kid with a few extra differences, and different
sides of her come out (e.g., like dancing at the campfire). When she
arrives at camp, she gets out of the car and waves at her parents
to leave (something she does nowhere else). She knows that she belongs
while she is at camp. This camp is one of the most important things
that happens to her all year round."
The Benefits of Case Studies
Case studies can be a strong component in program evaluation.
A camp program could use the case-study method to engage in a more in-depth
study of a small, randomly selected group of participants and gain a more
qualitative, context-rich view of the impact of their program. Because
the participants are randomly selected, the camp would obtain an unbiased
cross-section of participants experiences and outcomes.
If a camp asks its staff members and the parents of campers
to complete a post-camp evaluation, the case study would be an excellent
complement to these quantitative data, helping validate such findings
and identifying additional camper outcomes. Adding the case studies to
program evaluation might also shed important light on why certain program
components and/or populations of participants have positive or negative
outcomes. Objective evaluations from all participants and parents can
still be used year by year to consider the quality of the whole program
and its components, but including qualitative data from case studies would
add to the richness of the results.
Steve Brannan, Ed.D., is professor emeritus
in the School of Education at Portland State University, Portland, Oregon.
Ann Fullerton, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the
School of Education at Portland State University.
Originally published in the 1999 January/February
issue of Camping Magazine.