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Extreme Heat — Preventing and Identifying Heat-Related Illness
In extreme temperatures and humidity, it is important to train staff on the dangers of heat-related illnesses, signs of heat-related illnesses, and appropriate preventative measures.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines extreme heat as, “summertime temperatures that are substantially hotter and/or more humid than average for a location at that time of year. Children, especially children who are physically active, are at a higher risk for heat related-illnesses."
The CDC offers these tips to help ward off heat-related illnesses:
- Drink Plenty of Fluids — When weather is especially hot, increasing fluid intake is essential, regardless of your activity level. During heavy exercise in a hot environment, drink two to four glasses (16–32 ounces) of cool fluids each hour. This does not include liquids that contain alcohol or large amounts of sugar — these actually cause the loss of more body fluid. Also avoid very cold drinks, because they can cause stomach cramps.
- Wear Appropriate Clothing and Sunscreen — Lightweight, light-colored, loose-fitting clothing is ideal. Sunburn affects the body's ability to cool itself and causes a loss of body fluids. It also causes pain and damages the skin. When outdoors, wear SPF 15 or higher (the most effective products say "broad spectrum" or "UVA/UVB protection" on their labels) 30 minutes prior to going out. Continue to reapply it according to the package directions.
- Use Common Sense — Remember to keep cool and use common sense:
- Avoid hot foods and heavy meals — they add heat to the body.
- Drink plenty of fluids.
- Dress children in cool, loose clothing.
- Limit sun exposure during mid-day hours and in places of potential severe exposure such as beaches.
Warning Signs and Symptoms of Heat-Related Illness
- Heat Rash: Heat rash is a skin irritation caused by excessive sweating during hot, humid weather.
- Heat rash looks like a red cluster of pimples or small blisters.
- It is more likely to occur on the neck and upper chest, in the groin, under the breasts, and in elbow creases.
- Heat Cramps: Heat cramps usually affect those who sweat a lot during strenuous activity. This sweating depletes the body's salt and moisture levels. Low salt levels in muscles causes painful cramps. Heat cramps may also be a symptom of heat exhaustion.
- Muscle pain or spasms usually in the abdomen, arms, or legs.
- Heat Exhaustion: Heat exhaustion is the body's response to an excessive loss of water and salt, usually through excessive sweating. Those most prone to heat exhaustion are those that are elderly, have high blood pressure, and those working in a hot environment.
- Heavy sweating, weakness, cold/pale/clammy skin, fast and weak pulse, nausea and/or vomiting, fainting.
- Heat Stroke: Heat stroke is the most serious heat-related disorder. It occurs when the body becomes unable to control its temperature: the body's temperature rises rapidly, the sweating mechanism fails, and the body is unable to cool down. When heat stroke occurs, the body temperature can rise to 106° F or higher within 10 to 15 minutes. Heat stroke can cause death or permanent disability if emergency treatment is not given.
- Body temperature above 103° F, hot/red dry or moist skin, rapid and strong pulse, possible unconsciousness.
The CDC defines heat stroke as a medical emergency and recommends that you call 911 immediately, move the person to a cooler location, reduce the person's body temperature with cold cloths and/or a bath, and to NOT give fluids until trained medical attention arrives.
- Frequently Asked Questions about Extreme Heat
- Extreme Heat Prevention Guide - Centers for Disease Control
- Información en enfermedad relacionada con el calor en Español
- Recognizing, Preventing, and Treating Heat-Related Illness - Online Course New 2014
- Research on how the body handles heat
- Tips for employees who work in the outdoors
- Find Out How Other Camps are Dealing with the Heat!
- Tate's Day Camp, Knoxville, TN
Share Your Tips and Stories
Is your program doing something innovative to prevent, identify, or treat heat-related illnesses? Share your story below!