Imagine you are the director of a summer camp. It's April, and your camper registrations are not coming in fast enough. You are not sure how many staff to hire with such low numbers of campers. You hope the situation will improve, but for now, you wonder just how the camp will survive this summer, financially speaking, with low registrations. You are frantically trying to find campers to fill the spots, and you begin to consider new and even desperate ideas to improve the situation. Unfortunately, this is not such a far-fetched scenario for many camp directors. Although we cannot offer any quick fixes, this article discusses an aspect of Total Quality Management (TQM) that applies to the camp setting and employee involvement.
The inspiration for implementing employee involvement in camp was the result of a real camp facing a real problem. The real camp is a nonprofit that is owned and operated by a local council of a national camping organization and offers residential camp for boys and girls. In addition, they operate several off-season programs, such as horseback riding lessons, birthday parties, and rentals.
In the spring of 2003, this camp was facing the same situation described earlier. The camper registrations were much lower than they had been the year before. As of April 4, the number of camper registrations was 256, which was down from last year's 342 at the same date. Since camper registrations represent a primary source of revenue for the camp, this decline was a problem. Figure 1 shows the decline in camper registrations as of April 4 for the years 2000-2003. The council was also facing a reduction in funding from outside sources (such as grants and donations) of over 26 percent.
The decline in funding from outside sources and camper registrations was already affecting the economic situation of the camp in the spring. First, with fewer campers registered for the summer, the camp director was facing decisions about how many staff to hire, what program supplies to buy, and how much food to order. Fewer camper registrations meant fewer staff needed, and fewer camper registrations also meant less supplies and food to be purchased. The camp's budget for 2003 was based on estimated revenue from camper registrations, and such a decline in revenue was causing budgetary decisions to be difficult. Also, making such decisions is difficult when balanced against the hope that camper registrations will increase as the camp season gets closer.
According to the American Camp Association (ACA), these financial problems are not unique to the camp in this study (2001). Nonprofit camps in general are struggling to determine how to best serve campers with the limited funding they have and how to find more (ACA 2001). Nonprofit camp directors are being forced to concentrate more on efficiency than they have done in the past, and a lot of their focus is on making the most of the limited resources available to them (ACA 2001). Mission achievement and adequate budgeting are connected and must be done together (ACA 2001). The need to stay afloat financially, among other things, has resulted in some changes in the ways camps are operated (Lyons 1998). Indeed, camp directors are facing a work environment more like the corporate world and are being forced to adapt in order for their camps to survive (ACA 2001).
Employee Involvement: A Possible Solution
There are several ways to address a decline in funding for a camp. At their roots, financial solutions are all based on two things: (1) reducing expenses, or spending less money; and (2) increasing revenues, or making more money. Since the problem is that there is less money being generated by the camp, it might seem that the best way to handle the problem is to reduce costs so that less money is going out of the camp. During times of financial trouble, that is exactly what many organizations do. They go into crisis management mode and try to cut costs in whatever way they can to balance the budget (Chastain 1982). However, cost cutting is not easy or productive in the long term (Delvin & Godey 1994). When costs are cut, it can be difficult for organizations to meet their long-term goals or achieve their missions (Chastain 1982; Delvin & Godey 1994). Organizations that are experiencing financial trouble would do better to focus on cost management rather than cost cutting.
Total Quality Management
Total Quality Management (TQM) is a business management model that focuses on the continuous improvement of efficient operations in all parts of a corporation (Foster 2001). It has been shown that this efficiency, which is key to TQM, can result in greatly reduced costs and increased revenues for corporations. TQM has also shown success in nonprofit service organizations (Renee 1999). However, the usefulness of this management model for the camp setting has not been assessed. Renee (1999) says that "very little literature exists on how to apply the basic quality principles" to human-service organizations and other nonprofits.
TQM vs. the Traditional Approach
Total Staff Involvement
TQM requires the total commitment and involvement of the entire staff (Foster 2001). TQM is a management style that must start from the top (Foster 2001), with the total commitment of camp directors. The commitment required extends to every corner of the camp's organizational chart (Foster 2001), from directors to counselors to food service staff. The reason for this employee involvement is that the camp's program staff are the ones interacting with children, using supplies, using utilities, and creating the camp's product (the camp experience) for campers. These are the people who are closest to the camp's main source of revenue (camper registrations) and to the camp's main costs (program supplies, food, utilities, etc.). Thus, if there are ways that the camp's product could be improved to increase revenues or the camp could be more efficient to reduce costs, the staff may see them. Camp staff typically have a lot of influence on costs and revenues but are not included in budgetary decisions. Why not capitalize on a resource that every camp has — the knowledge of the staff — to improve continuously?
How Employee Involvement Works at Camp
EIP Meeting One
Brainstorming was the next step. The staff were given fifteen minutes, a pen, and several blank Post-it® notes to quietly brainstorm as many ideas as they could generate for the camp to reduce costs and increase revenues. After this, the staff shared their ideas by placing them on flip chart papers posted on the walls of the room. The ideas were organized into categories, including food, maintenance, utilities, program supplies, publicity, fund raising, and risk management. The staff were given five more minutes to write any ideas sparked during the time when they shared their ideas. It was then explained that feasibility, defined as "capable of being accomplished by this staff during this summer" must be considered. The staff chose five main ideas to become the goals of the EIP. These five goals were discussed to determine a plan of action to achieve them. The plan of action addressed who would do what, when, and how it would be done. After this process and agreement, the meeting was adjourned.
EIP Meeting Two
The visual EIP reminders were posters hanging above the staff sign in/out table in the office. This area was a high-traffic area for staff, but an area that campers rarely saw. The brightly colored posters listed the goals agreed upon and specific actions associated with each goal. For example, one of the goals chosen was to "recruit campers," and the actions listed along with it were, "Make camp great — they'll come back; invite friends, family, anyone with kids!" Another example of a goal and actions chosen was, "Conserve energy. Turn off lights wherever you go and teach your campers to do the same!"
Effects of Employee Involvement
In order to assess whether the EIP had any impact on the camp's costs and revenues for the summer of 2003, changes in the financial figures for categories chosen as goals for the staff were explored. The categories, figures measured, and specific goals that the staff chose are listed in Table 2.
Goals Chosen by Staff
Camper registrations for the summers of 2000-2003 were reviewed, and there did not seem to be any increase in camper registrations during or after June of 2003 (the date that the EIP began). However, by January 1, camper registrations for 2004 had reached 100. Registrations for 2002 and 2003 did not reach 100 until the middle of March. These results suggest that the staff were not able to help the camp to increase revenues for the summer of 2003, but they may have helped to increase revenues for the summer of 2004.
The other goals chosen by staff were related to cost reduction. The first of the cost-reduction goals was to conserve electricity by including conservation education in the camp program. The next goal chosen by staff was to reduce food waste by serving campers reasonable portions (rather than letting them serve themselves). The last cost-reduction goal chosen by staff was to minimize the cost of program supplies by using natural supplies where possible (such as leaves and sticks for arts and crafts) and maintaining other supplies well.
Financial figures for these categories of costs were reviewed for the years 2000-2003. Because it is logical that with more campers, there are more costs (and fewer costs with fewer campers), the actual figures were divided by the number of campers registered for that summer. These per- camper figures were then multiplied by the Consumer Price Index (CPI) in order to account for inflation in the figures between years. The CPI compares the buying power of one dollar in different years by standardizing dollar amounts against a base year (Bureau of Labor Statistics 2004). The adjusted figures were then compared by date to determine whether the costs for each of the categories discussed were less during and after the EIP. During the summer of 2003, there did not seem to be a cost reduction in utilities nor food and beverage. However, the camp did spend 3 percent less on program supplies per camper during the summer of 2003 than during the summer before.
In the short term, the EIP program was successful in terms of finances and staff culture. The staff achieved their goal of reducing program costs. Although the staff were not able to increase camper registrations for the summer of 2003, they were able to suggest some changes in the camp that have increased the number of early registrations for the summer of 2004. In terms of the staff culture, the EIP seemed to open lines of communication between directors and summer staff that had not been opened before. The directors were very supportive and willing to implement changes in policy and program as suggested by the staff.
Critics of TQM have claimed that the training costs involved in implementing the model will outweigh the cost savings produced by the change (Schmidt 1998). However, the costs resulting from the EIP were minimal. Because the program took place as part of the staff orientation and weekly staff meetings, the only cost directly associated with the EIP is the value of using that time for some other purpose.
The EIP was not without its challenges. It is important to note that there were no changes in camper registrations or utilities and food costs during the summer of 2003. This situation could be the result of trying to assess a TQM effort too early or the fact that some of those costs are fixed. For example, a certain amount of electricity is needed to operate the camp, regardless of the number of campers or the conscientiousness of staff. Thus, it is possible that although the staff did what they could to reduce electricity and food costs, those categories could not have been affected in such a brief time due to fixed costs. Although there were no short-term cost reductions or revenue generations detected for those categories, it does not mean that the program was not successful. It would be necessary to continue the EIP effort and continue examining the financial figures to determine any long-term successes.
TQM is a management style that is meant to be used throughout an organization. If you are a camp director and are thinking about implementing any aspect of TQM in your camp, try to implement them all. Implementing TQM may require big changes in a camp's culture, and these changes will only be successful if they are done together (Renee 1999). Also, TQM is not a quick fix. If positive results