Bibliographies of Camp-related Research
Effects of school camping on selected aspects of pupil behavior - - An experimental study.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 1958.
Determine the social, emotional, intellectual, physical, and democratic group living effects of a five-day school camping experience on sixth grade children.
four classes of sixth graders from Pennsylvania schools (2 classes in control group, 2 in camping group).
- Wood's Behavior Preference Record Elementary Forms A and B - used to measure democratic group living constructs of integrity, cooperation, friendliness, leadership, and responsibility.
- Haggerty-Olson-Wickman Behavior Rating Schedule- used to measure intellectual, physical, social, and emotional adjustment.
- Sociograms - used to measure social understanding and group acceptance.
- Baxter's Rating Scale of the Teacher's Personal Effectiveness, classroom observation, and teacher survey - used to measure instructional improvement as a result of the camp experience. Categories included: getting pupil response, creating friendly classroom atmosphere, establishing a feeling of security, exerting a stabilizing influence, inspiring originality ad initiative, developing pupil self-reliance.
- Parent Questionnaire
- Visitor Questionnaire
- Observations by teachers and counselors
Design - Pre-test/post-test/follow-up with control group.
- Wood's Behavior Preference test Form A - 4 weeks prior to camp, Form B the day before camp, Form A the day following camp, and Form B one month after camp.
- Haggerty-Olson-Wickman Behavior Rating Schedules - 2 weeks prior to and 2 weeks after camp.
- Baxter's Rating Scale used to collect sociometric data 2 weeks before and 4 weeks after camp.
- Parent Questionnaires given 2 weeks after camp.
- Camper Observations by teachers and counselors - submitted four weeks after the camp.
- t-test for analysis for differences between groups on Behavior Preference data.
- Frequencies used to describe sociometric data.
- Non-significant positive social and democratic changes. Boys appeared to benefit more than girls.
- Slight improvement in critical thinking among campers with low mental ability.
- No significant effect on children's stated preferences for various characteristics of democratic behavior.
- Significant (p<.10) total group social gains on teacher ratings.
- Teachers reported observing significant improvement in general classroom behavior.
- No significant differences in intellectual, physical, or emotional traits or common behavior problems.
- No significant changes, trends, or patterns in group associations or disassociations. The number of male isolates in the camp group increased more than would be expected in the classroom.
- No significant effects related to gender or I.Q.
- Student counselor ratings indicated an improvement in teacher effectiveness after the school camping experience.
- Parents almost unanimously favored the school camping experience. They attributed a variety of social, intellectual, emotional, and physical values to the experience.
- Camp visitors stated that healthy social and emotional outcomes resulted from the camp experience.
- Teachers and counselors observed that school camping seems to stimulate types of classroom activities that are consistent with good instruction.
- Teachers and counselors stated that they observed improved group and teacher-pupil relationships, increased motivation for classroom work, and student social gains.
- Teachers, parents, student counselors, and visitors attributed more favorable social and democratic behavior changes than indicated by the children on the Behavior Preference Record and sociograms.