Bibliographies of Camp-related Research
An examination of the effects of participation in an adventure camp program on the self-concept of adolescents with behavioral problems.
Larson, B. A.
Doctoral Dissertation, University of Kentucky, 1998.
Examine the effects of an adventure camp experience on the self-concept of adolescents with behavioral problems and the impact of the attributes of trust, cooperation, and problem solving on participants' self-concept.
Subjects: 61 male and female adolescents with behavior problems, ages 9-17 years.
Camp Affiliation: Life Adventure Camp, Lexington, Kentucky.
Method: Subjects participated in a five-day adventure camp. In the decentralized camp program subjects lived in groups of 8-10 and learned basic outdoor living skills. The challenge activities were sequenced into five levels: goal setting, awareness, trust, cooperation, and problem solving. Specific adventure activities included: hiking, caving, and challenge course activities.
- Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS) used to measure self-concept.
- Trust, Cooperation, and Problem-Solving Scale used to measure trust, cooperation, and problem solving.
Design: Quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group pre-test/post-test design (31 males and females in experimental group, 30 in control group).
- One way ANOVA used to analyze for differences between experimental and control groups.
- Paired t-test used to analyze for within-group differences between pre-test and post-test scores.
- Multiple Regression was used to analyze for influence of camp experience, age, trust, cooperation, and problem solving on change in self-concept scores of the experimental group.
- No significant PHCSCS self-concept gain or subscale score between-group differences.
- Significant positive self-concept gain score differences for the group attending adventure camp.
- Significant positive PHCSCS subscale differences for the camp group on behavior, intellectual and school status, and happiness and satisfaction.
- Significant positive PHCSCS subscale differences for control group on intellectual and school status and physical appearance and attributes.
- No significant between-group differences on trust, cooperation, and problem-solving.
- Significant differences between the two groups on the measure of trust.
- Significant positive differences within the experimental group on trust, cooperation, and problem solving.
- Significant differences between the two groups' self-concept scores in 9-11 year old age groups and significant self-concept gain scores for the experimental 12-14 age group.
- No significant age group differences between groups on PHCSCS subscale scores.
- Significant difference within 9-11 year old experimental group on PHCSCS subscale scores of physical appearance and attributes, popularity, and happiness and satisfaction.
- Significant differences within 12-14 year old experimental group on the behavior subscale score
- No significant age group differences between groups on trust, cooperation, and problem solving scores.
- Significant gains in the 9-11 year old experimental group in the areas of trust and problem solving.
- Regression Analysis results:
Age: negative impact on self-concept gain scores (as the subjects got older, self-concept gains diminished).
The camp experience: positive impact on self-concept gain scores and behavior subscale scores of subjects.
Trust: negative impact on self-concept gain scores and a positive impact on behavior subscale scores.
Cooperation: positive influence on self-concept gain scores and a negative impact on behavior subscale scores.
Problem solving: positive influence on self-concept and behavior subscale scores.
Intellectual and School Status Subscale: Age and cooperation had a negative impact on the scores, the camp experience, trust, and cooperation had a positive impact.
Physical Appearance and Attributes Subscale: Age, camp treatment, and trust had a negative impact;.cooperation and problem solving had a positive impact.
Anxiety Subscale: Age and trust had a negative impact; camp experience, cooperation, and problem solving had a positive impact.