Bibliographies of Camp-related Research
Changes in Self-Esteem and Anxiety in Competitive and Noncompetitive Camps
Journal of Social Psychology, 102.1 (1977) 55-57
Investigate the effects of competitive versus no-competitive camp programming on children's self-esteem and anxiety levels.
146 children, ages 10-14, upper middle class background, attending one of two camps with different program goals and philosophies (1 task-oriented, competitive, 1 non-competitive).
Pre-, post-test, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, IPAT Youth Anxiety Scale, observations.
- No significant change in self-esteem scores of subjects in competitive camp.
- Significant positive change in self-esteem scores of subjects in no-competitive camp.
- Significant positive change in subjects in competitive camp who were given opportunity to be involved in activities they enjoyed (group classified as "Achievers").
- Significant increase in anxiety level in "Achievers" in competitive camp and males in non-competitive camp. "The level of anxiety in both camps increased for those who stood to suffer a disjunction between present and future expectations in role performance."