Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

The Effects of Natural Resource Camps on Youths
 Carlson, J.E. and Baumgartner, D
The .Journal of Environmental Education, 5.3 (1974) 1-7

Test effects of a natural resource camp on changing attitudes toward natural resource management.

130 boys aged 13-19 attending two different one-week natural resource camps, one in Idaho and one in Washington. Data Analysis:  Part A: t-test for independent samples, pre-and post-test.  Part B: each dimension dichotomized into high and low attitudes based on median response on pre-test. Post-test: dichotomized scale using dependent samples t-test.  Part C: Multiple Regression Analysis: effects of residence size and occupational level on responses.


  • Attitudes more favorable toward all multiple-use components in post-test.
  • Significant changes in attitude toward: natural resources, clear-cut harvesting, watershed management, rangeland management, recreation management, private timberland management, public timberland management, wildlife management, and multiple-use management.
  • Watershed: Little change on post-test except for choice of no use, which tripled.
  • Wildlife Management: increase in acceptance of hunting females of all wild animals
  • Forest Recreation: Post-test 20% positive response increase to timber production and recreation on the same land, 10% increase in preference of timber production over recreation in general.
  • Timber cutting practices: Post-test positive increased view of timber as a crop to be harvested and replanted. Increase in belief in cutting timber not special because of size or age. Decrease view that no timber should be cut.
  • Range Management: Post-test slight increase favoring range division and provision of salt licks and water troughs.
  • Effects of Occupational Level and Residence on Attitude Change:
  • White collar level subjects: greater attitudinal changes than farm or blue collar
  • Only white collar substantially changed attitude toward concept of multiple-use and watershed management
  • Farm residents less likely than non-farm residents to change attitudes toward range land and watershed management.