Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

A study of the influence of a resident outdoor education experience on intermediate level children's perceptions of peers and perceptions of the out-of-doors
Carlson, M.K.
Doctoral Dissertation, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, 1972.

Determine the effect of a five-day resident outdoor education experience on the peer perceptions and outdoor perceptions of intermediate level children.

Subjects: 64 intermediate level (9-11 years old) boys and girls from intact family classroom groups.
Camp Affiliation: Cortland University's Environmental Education Center in Raquette Lake, NY.

Method: The five-day camp program consisted of learning experiences in mathematics, nature study, social studies, communicative skills, arts and crafts, music, drama, health, and physical education.


  • The Guess Who Inventory, adapted from a similar peer culture assessment tool. Subjects were given five sentences and asked to write the names of the person or persons from their classroom group who they thought each sentence fit.
  • The Selected Outdoor Pictures: five pictures selected to depict wild animals, woods, wild birds, and pollution. Subjects were shown the pictures and asked to write as many words or series of words that described what they saw.
  • Concept Factor Scale: Subjects were given bipolar adjectives used to describe five outdoor concepts and asked to indicate their choice for each pair on a scale.

Design: pre-test/post-test non-equivalent control group design. The experimental group participated in the five-day residential outdoor education experience and two control groups did not. The tests were administered during the two weeks before and after the camp experience.

Data Analysis: shift and change scores were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Scheffe post hoc tests.


  • No significant differences in the pre-test/post-test shift scores for the peer nominations for the experimental or control groups.
  • Significant differences on the wild birds and pollution items on the Selected Outdoor Pictures test. Significant differences between the experimental and one of the control groups and between the two control groups.
  • Significant differences between the two control groups for the stimulus word wild animals on the Concept Factor Scale
  • The researcher concluded that the outdoor education experience had no impact on the peer and outdoor perceptions of the participants.