Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

A two-week resident camp offering the primary objective of predetermined attitude change for early adolescents.
Coons, E.M.
Doctoral Dissertation, University of New Mexico, 1973.

Purpose:
Determine the effect of a two-week resident camp experience with pre-determined attitudinal change objectives on the self-concept and attitudes toward school and the learning process of adolescents.

Sample:
95 girls and boys aged 10-13

Method/Instruments:
Method: Camp Program: one "typical" camp program and an experimental. The first phase of the experimental program was highly adult controlled and authoritarian in nature. The second phase of the experimental program was structured in a manner similar to cooperative learning: each camper learned a specific outdoor living skill from the staff and was required to teach that skill to a small group of peers. The remainder of the program was structured to allow for democratic functioning of the camper group, with campers making decisions about rules, menus, procedures, program etc., with an emphasis on personal responsibility.

Design: pre-test/post-test control group design.  49 boys and girls in the experimental group, 46 boys and girls in the control group.

Instruments: Four measurement instruments were developed by the researcher and were found to be reliable and valid.

  • Self-Rating Scale - used to measure self-perceptions of physical body, social-ethical self-perceptions, psychosexual self-perceptions, attitude toward the value of learning, and attitude toward the teacher in the learning process (completed by campers on the 2nd and 11th days of camp).
  • Staff-Rating Scale - used to measure student self-perceptions of physical body, student social-ethical self-perceptions, student psychosexual self-perceptions, student attitude toward the value of learning, and student attitude toward the teacher in the learning process (completed by the resident teacher-counselors on the 2nd and 11th days of camp).
  • Guidance-Staff Rating Scale - - used to measure student self-perceptions of physical body, student social-ethical self-perceptions, student psychosexual self-perceptions, student attitude toward the value of learning, and student attitude toward the teacher in the learning process (completed by the guidance staff members-counselors on the 11th day of camp).
  • Sociometric Nomination "Guess Who" Technique - used to measure changing group structure and individual assessment within the group (campers completed this twice during each camp session).

Data Analysis: 

  • Chi Square Test for Two Independent Samples was used to analyze data from the Self-Ratings Scales and Staff-Rating Scales.
  • Median Test procedure was used to analyze data from the Guidance-Staff Rating Scale.
  • Sociometric Nomination ratings were based on the listing of the number of students selected four or more times by their peers.

Results:

  • Significantly greater positive attitude changes for the experimental group.
  • Significantly greater positive attitude changes for the experimental group as perceived by teacher-counselors.
  • Significantly greater positive attitude changes for the experimental group as perceived by the guidance staff.
  • The children regarded each other as being more positive and less negative after the experimental session than after the control group camp session. The control group indicated an increase in negative perceptions of peers.

 

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