Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Bibliographies of Camp-related Research


Changes in self-concepts and sociometric status of fifth and sixth grade children as a result of two different school curricula. 
Davidson, M.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1965.

Determine the effects of two different camp curricula on self-concept and sociometric status of fifth and sixth grade children.

60 fifth and sixth grade children, average age 11.5 years.

Camp Program: 8-day school camp. Camp 1 (30 children) - labeled the "adult-centered" camp. Program characterized by fixed schedules, inflexible programming, constrictive adult guidance, minimum of group interaction. Camp 2 (30 children) - labeled the "child-centered" camp. Program characterized by encouragement of individual initiative, group interaction, self-government, flexible programming, and minimum of adult interference.


  • Self-Concept Checklist (Beker)
  • Classroom Social Distance Scale (Cunningham)
  • Camp Evaluations by campers, counselors, and head teachers.
  • Observer ratings for social climate: democratic leadership, leadership's involvement with campers, camper involvement, group climate.
  • Group Process Form - filled out by counselors at the end of each day.

Design: pre-test/post-test with follow-up. Tests were given one week prior to camp, on the last day of camp, and 16 weeks after camp.

Data Analysis:

  • McNemar formula to analyze for the significance of changes between pre- and post-tests.
  • Chi-Square test for two independent samples to analyze for differences between the camps.


  • Significantly greater positive self-concept and peer relationship changes than negative shifts. The researcher concluded that school camping does produce positive changes in the self-concepts and social relationships of elementary school children.
  • Camper growth in self-concept did not vary significantly between the two camps.
  • Children responded favorably to the more structured experience of camp 1.
  • Children in the more highly structured camp program showed more positive improvement on a greater number of items on the self-concept scale.
  • More positive gains in social relationships in the child-centered camp program.