Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Bibliographies of Camp-related Research


Enhancing life options for low income African-American children.
Davis, K.C.
Unpublished master's thesis, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 2000.

Determine the effectiveness of the faith-based camping in mitigating against race-related social disadvantages experienced by low-income African-American children.

Subjects: 67 low-income male and female African-American children, ages 7-12 from Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, and Texas.
Camp Affiliation: Salvation Army, Camp Ponderosa Ranch, Arizona.

Method: Camp Program: 6-week camp with typical general camp program activities.

Instruments/Design: post-camp telephone survey of campers, using open-ended questions:

  • What did you like most about camp? Least?
  • Why did you want to come to camp?
  • What would you do to make camp better?
  • Did camp teach you anything new about life? Yourself? Nature?
  • Do you think you would want to come back?

Data Analysis: Survey responses were categorized using theme codes and analyzed for frequency of recurring themes based on the theory of Pierre Bourdieu. The categories included cultural capital (culturally significant skills or achievements or knowledge gained through camp experience) and social capital (self-reported attitude or behavior improvements that facilitated social interaction; meaningful relationships established at camp).


  • Cultural Capital: The most frequently mentioned were recreation/program activities, then nature, then new skills.
  • Social Capital: The most frequently mentioned were spiritual, followed by improved personal behavior, personal growth, and improvement in social skills and understandings.
  • The researcher observed that the frequency of responses about spirituality is consistent with the research that suggests that links the outcomes with the camp's intended goals and objectives.