Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

The effects of a summer camp arithmetic enrichment program
Evans, F.F.
Doctoral Dissertation, George Peabody College for Teachers, 1957.

Determine the effect of a six-week summer camp arithmetic enrichment program on the arithmetic achievement of 30 elementary school boys.

Subjects: 60 boys in grades three through seven.
Camp Affiliation: Camp Whooppee, as summer camp of Junior Military Academy at Bloomington Springs, Tennessee.

Method: The camp program was set up to include solving of arithmetic problems using actual camp activities and facilities such as: riflery, archery, boating, games, nature, construction, purchasing equipment, counting activities, graphing of various camp activities, hydraulics related to camp equipment and facilities, measuring distances, time, volume, and calculating ratios and percentages related to various activities.


  • Stanford Achievement Test in Arithmetic to measure arithmetic skills.
  • Otis Quick-Scoring Mental Abilities Test and Kuhlman Anderson test to measure I.Q.

Design: Pre-test/post-test matched control group design. There were 30 in the control group and 30 in the experimental group. Subjects were matched on arithmetic achievement scores, age, and I.Q.. The pre-test was administered in May and the post-test in August.

Data Analysis: t-test


  • Experimental group experienced significantly less loss of arithmetic ability over the summer than the control group. 27% of the experimental group showed a gain, while none of the control group showed a gain in arithmetic skills over the summer.
  • There was less loss in arithmetic reasoning skills than in computation skills for the camp group.
  • The boys in the camp program who participated in a large number of enrichment experiences experienced less arithmetic skill loss than those who engaged in fewer experiences.
  • Less loss in reasoning skills than in computational skills for the camp group.
  • The two basic computational functions, addition and multiplication, which were most used in the camp program suffered less loss that subtraction and division skills.
  • In the camp group, boys with a higher I.Q. showed greater loss in retention of arithmetic skills.
  • The boys in the camp group who had higher I.Q.'s did not voluntarily engage in more arithmetic problem solving activities that the boys with lower I.Q.'s.
  • Boys in both groups who participated in many arithmetic enrichment experiences showed less loss than those who participated in few experiences (loss of a small fraction of a month as compared with an average 6-month loss).