Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

A comparison of affective changes between economically disadvantages and advantaged sixth graders at a resident outdoor program.
Fletcher, S.A.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 1973.

Determine the differences in outcomes in self-reliance, cooperation, and transfer of positive values back to the classroom between economically disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged sixth graders attending a five-day resident outdoor education program.

25 boys and girls from disadvantaged backgrounds; 25 boys and girls from advantaged backgrounds.


  • Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Test: measures self-reliance
  • All About Myself Scale: a self-rating scale measuring perceived competence.
  • Pre and Post-camp questionnaires.

Design: 2(socioeconomic status) x 2 (gender) x 2 (pretest/posttest) design. Pretests were given 3 weeks before the camp experience, posttests were given 2 weeks after the camp experience.

Data Analysis:

  • ANOVA on all 3 measures, all combination of variables.
  • Chi-square test for each item on the All About Myself Scale.


  • Outdoor education experience made a significant difference in externality for the disadvantaged group (they became more internal). The disadvantaged group members were more external than the advantaged group on the pre-test and reached the advantaged group's pre-test level on the post-test.
  • Significant positive difference between pre and post-test externality scores for both groups, indicating that the camp experience had a positive effect on locus of control.
  • No significant differences on any of the comparisons on the All About Myself Scale.
  • Positive effect on self-reliance and self-confidence of all students.
  • Moderate improvement in cooperation for all students.
  • Moderate transfer of positive values back to the classroom for all students.
  • Significant positive differences between pre-test and post-test scores for all children on locus of control. Advantaged girls achieved the greatest difference and disadvantaged boys achieved the smallest difference.
  • Questionnaire Results:
    • Majority of the children enjoyed the experience and would like to go back again.
    • Most of the children felt they had made new friends at camp. More of the advantaged children than disadvantage children felt they had made new friends.
    • More of the boys than girls said they fought while at camp.
    • Children were evenly divided over whether others in the class seemed friendlier after camp.
    • No difference in the way children felt about relationships with their teachers.