Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Relations Between Friendship, Group Acceptance, and Evaluations of Summer Camp
Hanna, N.A., & Berndt, T.
Journal of Early Adolescence, 15.14 (1981) 456-475

Examine the degree to which friendship and peer group acceptance are related. To determine if there are qualities common to both and if the two peer domains are associated with the same outcome measurements such as self-esteem, social competence and school competence.

77 children (43 female, 34 male) ages 12-15 years. 74% of the total campers in attendance participated in the study. Camp was held for four 1-week sessions. Subjects attending for more than one session were studied only for their first session at camp. Camp program was the same for each 1-week session.

Pre-test questionnaire measuring: general expectations about camp, friendship status including number of times previously attended camp and whether attended with a friend, best friend or alone, and best friendships prior to camp, whether best friend was attending the camp or not including measurement of positive and negative aspects of the friendship.

Post-test questionnaires: subjects rated their group and individual group members on positive and negative items using a subset of items found on the first questionnaire regarding the features of best friendships. A scale to measure individual group adaptation and camp evaluation was also included. Counselors rated individual members of their group on a six item "social functioning" scale.


  • No significant correlations between camp friendship or group acceptance and evaluations of the camp experience.
  • Positive correlation between camp expectations on pre-test and camp evaluations on post-test.
  • Subjects attending camp with a friend, had more positive expectations and evaluations of camp than subjects attending camp alone.
  • Results support that group acceptance and friendship, though related, are separate peer domains.
  • No significant correlation between subject camp friendship antagonism and antagonism rating given from the group.