Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

The Impact of Short-Term Adventure Camp on Self-Concept and Anxiety in Japanese Early Adolescents
Iada, M., Imura, H., & van der Smissen, B.
Bulletin of the Institute of Health and Sports Sciences, 
University of Tsukuba
, 9 (1986) 91-101

Examine the effects of adventure programming on the self-concept of early adolescents.

155 children (114 males, 41 females) in 6th through 8th grade who voluntarily participated in an 8-day adventure camp experience with the main activity being a 3-day mountain climb. Subjects came from the Tokyo metropolitan area from mainly middle class families.

Children's Self-Actualization Scale (CSAS), State Anxiety Inventory (SAI), State Anxiety Inventory for Children (SAIC). Pre-, Post-test for 8 day total camp experience. Pre-, Post-test for 3-day mountain climb experience.


  • Significant positive change in self-concept.
  • Significant positive change in achievement motivation and self-effort.
  • Significant change in overall self-concept and achievement motivation in female subjects.
  • No significant change in self-concept or sub areas for male subjects.
  • Subjects who had a great reduction of anxiety levels had greater improvement in self-effort than subjects with low reduction of anxiety levels.