Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Effects of school camping on selected aspects of pupil behavior - - An experimental study. 
Kranzer, H.C.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 1958.

Determine the social, emotional, intellectual, physical, and democratic group living effects of a five-day school camping experience on sixth grade children.

four classes of sixth graders from Pennsylvania schools (2 classes in control group, 2 in camping group).


  • Wood's Behavior Preference Record Elementary Forms A and B - used to measure democratic group living constructs of integrity, cooperation, friendliness, leadership, and responsibility.
  • Haggerty-Olson-Wickman Behavior Rating Schedule- used to measure intellectual, physical, social, and emotional adjustment.
  • Sociograms - used to measure social understanding and group acceptance.
  • Baxter's Rating Scale of the Teacher's Personal Effectiveness, classroom observation, and teacher survey - used to measure instructional improvement as a result of the camp experience. Categories included: getting pupil response, creating friendly classroom atmosphere, establishing a feeling of security, exerting a stabilizing influence, inspiring originality ad initiative, developing pupil self-reliance.
  • Parent Questionnaire
  • Visitor Questionnaire
  • Observations by teachers and counselors

Design - Pre-test/post-test/follow-up with control group.

  • Wood's Behavior Preference test Form A - 4 weeks prior to camp, Form B the day before camp, Form A the day following camp, and Form B one month after camp.
  • Haggerty-Olson-Wickman Behavior Rating Schedules - 2 weeks prior to and 2 weeks after camp.
  • Baxter's Rating Scale used to collect sociometric data 2 weeks before and 4 weeks after camp.
  • Parent Questionnaires given 2 weeks after camp.
  • Camper Observations by teachers and counselors - submitted four weeks after the camp.

Data Analysis

  • t-test for analysis for differences between groups on Behavior Preference data.
  • Frequencies used to describe sociometric data.


  • Non-significant positive social and democratic changes. Boys appeared to benefit more than girls.
  • Slight improvement in critical thinking among campers with low mental ability.
  • No significant effect on children's stated preferences for various characteristics of democratic behavior.
  • Significant (p<.10) total group social gains on teacher ratings.
  • Teachers reported observing significant improvement in general classroom behavior.
  • No significant differences in intellectual, physical, or emotional traits or common behavior problems.
  • No significant changes, trends, or patterns in group associations or disassociations. The number of male isolates in the camp group increased more than would be expected in the classroom.
  • No significant effects related to gender or I.Q.
  • Student counselor ratings indicated an improvement in teacher effectiveness after the school camping experience.
  • Parents almost unanimously favored the school camping experience. They attributed a variety of social, intellectual, emotional, and physical values to the experience.
  • Camp visitors stated that healthy social and emotional outcomes resulted from the camp experience.
  • Teachers and counselors observed that school camping seems to stimulate types of classroom activities that are consistent with good instruction.
  • Teachers and counselors stated that they observed improved group and teacher-pupil relationships, increased motivation for classroom work, and student social gains.
  • Teachers, parents, student counselors, and visitors attributed more favorable social and democratic behavior changes than indicated by the children on the Behavior Preference Record and sociograms.