Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

The effects of an organized camping experience on self-concept change in relation to three variables: age, sex, and observable behavior change.
Krieger, W.
(Doctoral Dissertation, University of New Mexico, 1970). Dissertation Abstracts International, 31, 5131A.

Examine the effects of organized camping on self-concept related to gender, age, and behavior.

Treatment group: 110 campers attending a four-week session at a residential camp operated by a Jewish community center.

Control Group: 71 children not participating in an organized camping experience.


  • Instrument: Lipsitt Self-Concept Scale for Children, Bowers' Behavior Rating Scale.
  • Design: Pre-test/post-test with a control group for self-concept scale only.
  • Data Analysis: ANCOVA used to analyze for differences in effect of treatment on self-concept. ANOVA used to test differential treatment effect on age and gender groups, correlation coefficients used to test the relationship between self-concept change and observable behavior change.


  • Significant difference between treatment and control groups; campers experienced significant positive changes in self-esteem. However, large standard deviations indicate negative self-concept change for many campers.
  • No significant difference in self-concept changes by age or gender.
  • No significant relationship between self-concept change and observable behavior change, although standard deviations indicates that some campers showed an increase in observable behavior scores in each category.
  • No significant relationship between self-concept change and change in ability to learn, ability to build interpersonal relationships with peers, change in inappropriate behaviors, general mood of unhappiness or depression, or change in tendency to develop physical symptoms.