Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

An examination of the effects of participation in an adventure camp program on the self-concept of adolescents with behavioral problems.
Larson, B. A. 
Doctoral Dissertation, University of Kentucky, 1998.

Purpose:
Examine the effects of an adventure camp experience on the self-concept of adolescents with behavioral problems and the impact of the attributes of trust, cooperation, and problem solving on participants' self-concept.

Sample:
Subjects: 61 male and female adolescents with behavior problems, ages 9-17 years.
Camp Affiliation: Life Adventure Camp, Lexington, Kentucky.

Method/Instruments:
Method: Subjects participated in a five-day adventure camp. In the decentralized camp program subjects lived in groups of 8-10 and learned basic outdoor living skills. The challenge activities were sequenced into five levels: goal setting, awareness, trust, cooperation, and problem solving. Specific adventure activities included: hiking, caving, and challenge course activities.

Instruments:

  • Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS) used to measure self-concept.
  • Trust, Cooperation, and Problem-Solving Scale used to measure trust, cooperation, and problem solving.

Design: Quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group pre-test/post-test design (31 males and females in experimental group, 30 in control group).

Data Analysis:

  • One way ANOVA used to analyze for differences between experimental and control groups.
  • Paired t-test used to analyze for within-group differences between pre-test and post-test scores.
  • Multiple Regression was used to analyze for influence of camp experience, age, trust, cooperation, and problem solving on change in self-concept scores of the experimental group.

Results:

  • No significant PHCSCS self-concept gain or subscale score between-group differences.
  • Significant positive self-concept gain score differences for the group attending adventure camp.
  • Significant positive PHCSCS subscale differences for the camp group on behavior, intellectual and school status, and happiness and satisfaction.
  • Significant positive PHCSCS subscale differences for control group on intellectual and school status and physical appearance and attributes.
  • No significant between-group differences on trust, cooperation, and problem-solving.
  • Significant differences between the two groups on the measure of trust.
  • Significant positive differences within the experimental group on trust, cooperation, and problem solving.
  • Significant differences between the two groups' self-concept scores in 9-11 year old age groups and significant self-concept gain scores for the experimental 12-14 age group.
  • No significant age group differences between groups on PHCSCS subscale scores.
  • Significant difference within 9-11 year old experimental group on PHCSCS subscale scores of physical appearance and attributes, popularity, and happiness and satisfaction.
  • Significant differences within 12-14 year old experimental group on the behavior subscale score
  • No significant age group differences between groups on trust, cooperation, and problem solving scores.
  • Significant gains in the 9-11 year old experimental group in the areas of trust and problem solving.
  • Regression Analysis results:
  • Age: negative impact on self-concept gain scores (as the subjects got older, self-concept gains diminished).

  • The camp experience: positive impact on self-concept gain scores and behavior subscale scores of subjects.

  • Trust: negative impact on self-concept gain scores and a positive impact on behavior subscale scores.

  • Cooperation: positive influence on self-concept gain scores and a negative impact on behavior subscale scores.

  • Problem solving: positive influence on self-concept and behavior subscale scores.

  • Intellectual and School Status Subscale: Age and cooperation had a negative impact on the scores, the camp experience, trust, and cooperation had a positive impact.

  • Physical Appearance and Attributes Subscale: Age, camp treatment, and trust had a negative impact;.cooperation and problem solving had a positive impact.

  • Anxiety Subscale: Age and trust had a negative impact; camp experience, cooperation, and problem solving had a positive impact.

 

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