Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

A Comparison of the effectiveness of group camping experiences on change of self-concept for campers with professional and non-professional leaders. 
Marks, R.J.
Doctoral Dissertation, West Virginia University, 1981.

Determine effectiveness of professional and non-professional group leaders in enabling changes in self-concept and concept of ideal in a camping experience designed to enhance self-understanding.

243 seventh and eighth grade students in rural Virginia.

Method: Campers attended one of two separate weekend camps. Non-professional group leaders were volunteers who were given six hours of training prior to camp. Professional group leaders were students enrolled in the Master's Degree program of the Guidance and Counseling Department of the University of West Virginia. The camp program included three large group meetings and four small group discussions. The topics for these meetings included group and family relationships, behavior characteristics, and inaccuracy of perceptions of individuals and situations. The small group discussions focused on interpersonal relationships in the school, family, and community.

Instrument: adaptation of Bills Index of Adjustment and Values for Self.

Design: Pre-test/post-test, follow-up (ten weeks after camp).

Data Analysis: ANOVA. The recommended procedure for this type of analysis is Repeated Measures ANOVA, therefore, results should be viewed with caution.


  • Campers' Discrepancy scores (difference between self-concept and ideal self scores) were significantly lower at the end of the camp experience.
  • No difference in discrepancy scores, ideal self scores or self-concept scores between professional and non-professional groups.
  • Campers who were 4-H members had higher discrepancy scores at all three testing times.
  • No significant changes in self-concept.
  • No significant discrepancy score differences between males and females.
  • No significant discrepancy score differences according to residence.