Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

The Association Between Leadership Components of the Resident Camp Experience and Camper Development in Self-Concept, Interpersonal Affect, and Environmental Attitude
Myers, Judith Lay
Thesis. Pennsylvania State University 1978

Determine the leadership skills associated with development of campers self-attitudes, feeling attached to others, and response to the outdoors.

74 camp counselors, 26 camp administrators, and 122 campers from 4 boys camps and 3 girls camps located in the New England and Mid Atlantic geographic area.

Pre-, Post-test, Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale, Bovard Interpersonal Affect Scale, Millward-Ginter Outdoor Attitude Inventory, camper background information questionnaire, camper activity record, Camper-counselor Rating Form, Dimock L Inventory, Withall Social-Emotional Climate Index, staff background information questionnaire, job responsibility ranking-counselor, job responsibility ranking-administrative program staff, camp director interview.


  • Significant positive overall change in camper self-concept and environmental attitude.
  • No significant overall change in interpersonal effect.
  • Age and prior attendance at same camp significantly associated with self-concept change.
  • Environmental attitude significantly associated with community in which camper lives.
  • Significant association between counselor leadership components and camper self-concept change.
  • No significant change in overall counselor leadership attitudes over the study period.
  • Significant decrease in counselor flexibility over the study period.
  • Camp director attitudes found to affect counselor attitudes.