Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Camp Lotsafun: A Pre and Post Evaluation of Mentally Handicapped Citizens as a Function of an Enriched Summer Camp Experience.
Oakley, L.E.
Doctoral Dissertation, University of Nevada - Reno, 1980.

Determine the differential effects of a summer camp experience on two groups of mentally handicapped people - those who came from institutional settings and those from community living arrangements.

Subjects were 45 mentally handicapped individuals, ages 9-64, with IQ's ranging from 10-105.
Camp Affiliation: Camp Lotsafun, a state-sponsored summer camp for the mentally handicapped.


  • Subjects divided into 3 groups: 15 mentally handicapped subjects from institutional settings, 15 mentally handicapped subjects from community living arrangements, 16 mentally handicapped subjects who did not attend camp in the control group.
  • Camp Program: Each camp session was 5 days long. Activities listed included swimming, hiking, and horseback riding.


  • Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test used to obtain an estimate of each subject's verbal intelligence.
  • Camp Lotsafun Evaluation Form, an observational rating scale developed by the researcher to measure social interaction, self care: feeding, aggression/anger, toileting skills, and communication skills.

Design: Pre-test/post-test with follow-up design using the Camp Lotsafun Evaluation Form (CLEF). Subjects were tested two weeks before camp, at the end of the camp session and two weeks after the end of camp.

Data Analysis: ANOVA used to test for differences on the CLEF. Results should be viewed with caution, as a t-test for dependent measures or Repeated Measures ANOVA would have been a more appropriate choice for this design.


  • No significant change for either of the camp groups on social interaction, aggression/anger, toileting skills, or communication skills between the pre-test and post-test.
  • Significant improvement in self-care: feeding skills for the community living camp group between the pre-test and post-test.
  • No significant long-term effects of the camp experience for either the institutional setting group or the community living group.