Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Changes in Self-Esteem and Anxiety in Competitive and Noncompetitive Camps
Rubinstein, R.P.
Journal of Social Psychology, 102.1 (1977) 55-57

Investigate the effects of competitive versus no-competitive camp programming on children's self-esteem and anxiety levels.

146 children, ages 10-14, upper middle class background, attending one of two camps with different program goals and philosophies (1 task-oriented, competitive, 1 non-competitive).

Pre-, post-test, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, IPAT Youth Anxiety Scale, observations.


  • No significant change in self-esteem scores of subjects in competitive camp.
  • Significant positive change in self-esteem scores of subjects in no-competitive camp.
  • Significant positive change in subjects in competitive camp who were given opportunity to be involved in activities they enjoyed (group classified as "Achievers").
  • Significant increase in anxiety level in "Achievers" in competitive camp and males in non-competitive camp. "The level of anxiety in both camps increased for those who stood to suffer a disjunction between present and future expectations in role performance."