Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

A Comparison of Self Esteem, Anxiety and Use of Health Services in Two Social Environments
Rubinstein, Ruth Peles
Thesis. Rutgers University 1975

Investigate the effects of a competitive versus a non-competitive camp on self-esteem and anxiety levels, and use of health care facility.

146 children, male and female, attending either a competitive camp or a non-competitive camp.

Pre-, post-test (beginning of camp and at end of 8-week camp session), Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, I.P.A.T.'s Youth Anxiety Scale, observations, interviews.


  • Males in the non-competitive camp showed the greatest increase in self-esteem.
  • There were no differences in the increase of the level of anxiety between the two camps. Subjects in both camps who expected a decrease in rewards, expectations and obligations at the end of camp experienced an increase in anxiety level.
  • Use of the health care facility in the competitive camp was "often independent of its function to alleviate physical discomfort and restore health."
  • Use of health care in the non-competitive camp went beyond the need for restoring health and was used as a learning tool to prevent illness and achieve physical security.