Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Adjustment of Educable Mentally Retarded Children in Integrated and Segregated Residential Summer Camp Settings and Attitudes of Normal Children and Camp Staff Members Toward Educable Mentally Retarded Children.
Sexter, J.S.
Doctoral Dissertation, Fordham University, New York, 1972.

Determine the effects of integrated and segregated residential camp settings on adjustment of educable mentally retarded children and the attitudes of normal children and staff members toward them.

72 educable mentally retarded children, 234 normal children and 100 staff members.

Instruments:  Camper Summary Questionnaire was used to measure camper adjustment.
Semantic Differential Technique was used to determine the attitudes of normal campers and staff members toward the retarded campers and to compare these attitudes with attitudes toward normal campers and self attitude.


  • 36 retarded campers and 117 normal campers attended the four-week segregated residential camp, 36 retarded and 117 normal children attended the three-week integrated camp. 47 of the staff worked directly with the retarded campers, 53 did not.
  • Counselors completed the Camper Summary Questionnaire on the 19th day after children arrived in camp.
  • Normal children both camp settings completed the Semantic Differential instrument on the second and last days of the first session and at end of the third session. Counselors completed the Semantic Differential during pre-camp training, last day of the first session, and at the end of the third session.

Design: pre-test/post-test design.

Data Analysis:

  • T-test for independent groups was used to compare the post-test adjustment scores of segregated and integrated groups of retarded campers.
  • Two-way ANOVA with Repeated Measures was used to analyze the Semantic Differential scores in order to determine attitudes of normal children toward the retarded children.
  • One-way ANOVA with Repeated Measures was used to analyze the data on staff attitudes toward the retarded campers.


  • No significant differences in adjustment between the retarded children in the segregated setting and the retarded children in the integrated setting.
  • Attitudes of normal children in the segregated camp remained the same toward retarded children.
  • Significant positive changes in attitudes of normal children and staff in the integrated camp toward retarded children.
  • Attitudes toward retarded children were more negative than toward normal children among normal children and staff and more negative than attitudes toward self.
  • No significant differences in staff attitudes toward retarded campers in either setting.