Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

The educational effectiveness of the traveling school camp.
Shaw, M.J.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, 1959.

Determine the effects of a school traveling camp on the personal, social, and total adjustment of high school students and their attitudes toward other races and nationalities.

30 matched pairs of high school students, ages 16-18.

Camp Program: 6,000 mile summer travel camp trip visiting various historical sites from Utah to the Eastern United States. The school group camped at various campsites along the route.


  • Observational Records
  • Student Journals
  • Tape Recordings of Group Meetings
  • Motion Pictures
  • Sociometric tests of group relations
  • Remmer's Attitude Scale (H.H. Grice) - measured attitudes toward races and nationalities.
  • California Test of Personality
  • Cooperative American History Test
  • Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values

Design: pre-test/post-test with control group.


  • Within-Trip-Group Results:
    • Substantial improvement in social adjustment and personal adjustment.
    • Substantial improvement in attitude toward school work and study and in American History Test scores.
    • Losses in the area of social standards.
    • Girls in the camp group changed from ranking highest in social standards at the beginning of the study to lowest at the end of the study.
    • Girls in the camp group showed decreases in feelings of personal worth and sense of belonging.
    • The greatest growth experienced by the camp group was in the areas of feelings of personal freedom and school relations.
    • Boys improved most in social skills and family relations.
    • Girls improved most in school relations and social skills.
    • The camp group displayed a greater tolerance toward the religious beliefs of others after the trip.
    • Every student but one experienced value changes in five of the six value categories as a result of the trip. The girls gained most in economic and political values and the boys gained most in aesthetic and religious values.
    • Social adjustment was the area of greatest improvement.
  • Between-Group Results:
    • Camp group experienced significantly greater improvement in social adjustment.
    • No significant differences in family relations and school relations components of social adjustment.
    • No significant differences in personal adjustment.
    • Camp group experienced significantly greater improvement in total adjustment.