Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Effects of an outdoor educational experience on children's locus of control and performance on physical tasks.
Ulrey, G.L. 
Doctoral Dissertation, Boston College, 1974

Examine the effects of an outdoor educational program designed to improve children's physical and problem solving skills on locus of control and performance of physical tasks.

Subjects: 140 third and fourth grade children (8-10 years old).
Camp Affiliation: Hale Reservation, Westwood, MA.

Method: Two-week summer camp program including ropes course activities designed to encourage development of risk-taking skills, psychomotor skills and individual and group problem solving skills.


  • Short forms of the Nowicki and Strickland Locus of Control Scale (NSLCS): measured locus of control beliefs.
  • Intellectual Responsibility Questionnaire (IARQ): measures academic locus of control beliefs.
  • Observation rating sheet developed by the researcher to measure risk-taking, competence, reaction-to-obstacles, and leadership-orientation

Design: pre-test/post-test with control group. 83 children in the experimental group and 57 in the control group.

Data Analysis: Pearson product moment correlation was used to analyze the data for relationships between changes in locus of control scores and behavioral ratings and the relationship between age, gender, and locus of control scores. ANCOVA was used to test for changes in locus of control scores between pre- and post-tests.


  • No significant improvement on behavioral rating scores.
  • Significant internal modifications of locus of control for both third and fourth grade experimental subjects.
  • Significant correlation between increased locus of control scores and improvement in the risk-taking behaviors.