Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

Bibliographies of Camp-related Research

The effects of self-care training on the self-concept, self-care, and metabolic control of diabetic children. 
Zorumski, C.H.
Doctoral Dissertation, The College of William and Mary in Virginia, 1997.

Determine the effectiveness of self-care training in enhancing self-concept and improving self-care behavior and metabolic control of diabetic children.

49 diabetic children ages eight to 13.

Method: All of the children received self-care training from their physicians. 27 children attended a week-long summer vacation diabetes camp where they received additional self-care training. The training included monitoring, blood testing, insulin administration, psychological adjustment, family involvement, nutrition, exercise, complications, and hygiene.


  • Self-Perception Profile for Children: used to measure children's perceptions of their personal competency and adequacy.
  • Self-Care Questionnaire: measures the frequency of performance of self-care management activities.
  • Glycated hemoglobin levels: measures average blood sugar levels over one to three months.

Design: pre-test/post-test design. The pre-test was given just before the self-care training began and the post-test was given four months after camp.

Data Analysis: Repeated Measures MANOVAs were used to compare pre- and post-test scores on all measures. Three 2x2 (group x time) repeated measures ANCOVAs were used to measure changes from before to after the completion of the self-care training on all measures. Two 2x2 (group x time) repeated measures ANCOVAs with self-concept as a covariant were used to compare subjects on the self-care questionnaire and blood sugar levels. Data were also analyzed for interaction effects between birth order, number of children, family size, gender, grade, household type, racial identity, and socioeconomic status and self-concept.


  • No significant differences in self-concept, self-care behavior, or metabolic control between the control group and the camp group.
  • Number of children in the family and total size of family had significant effects on subjects' hemoglobin levels. Subjects from larger families tended to have higher blood glucose levels.